Section 3  - Front Suspension, Axle & Springs

Toe-in can be adjusted by loosening the clamp bolts at each end of the left hand tie rod and turning the tie rod to increase its length until proper toe-in is secured. Before locking the clamp bolts make sure that the tie rod ends are in align­ment with their ball studs, Fig. 28. If the tie rod is not in alignment with the studs, binding will result. Lock the clamp bolts at each end of the tie rod securely.
Fig. 29—Wheels Set IN 20 degrees for Checking Steering Geometry
toe-out on the right wheel which should be 24 de­grees plus or minus 2 degrees.
To check the left steering arm, turn the right wheel in 20 degrees and repeat the operations de­scribed above. If the left wheel does not have the proper amount of toe-out, replace the left steering arm. If the right wheel does not have the proper amount of toe-out, replace the right steering arm.
This completes the checks and corrections. How­ever, it is good practice to recheck all the angles after corrections have been completed to assure accuracy. When checking and correcting the front end angles of any car the factory specifications should be closely adhered to.
Fig. 28-Alignment of Tie Rod Ends
Steering geometry or toe-out on turns is con­trolled by the angle of the steering arms. Therefore, checking the steering geometry determines whether or not the steering arms are bent. To check the right steering arm, turn the left wheel in so that when the contact bar of the aligner engages the tire, the pointer will set at 20 degrees, Fig. 29. Now go to the right side of the car and push the contact bar in until it engages the tire. The pointer on the right hand scale will now indicate the amount of
1/2, ALL 3/4 AND 1-1/2-TON TRUCKS
The front axle used in the 1/2, all 3/4 and 1-1/2-ton trucks is known as the reverse Elliot type. It is a steel dropforging with the spring seats forged integral with the "I" beam. The "I" beam is heat-treated for extreme toughness and is machined to very close limits.
The kingpin is recessed and held in position by a tapered pin drawn tightly into the recess by a lock washer and nut. The holes at each end of the "I" beam are bored at a slight angle to permit the kingpin to tilt inward at the top. This inward tilt is called kingpin inclination.
The steering knuckle is mounted to the front axle, by means of this kingpin, and rides on a ball bearing which makes steering easy.
The brake flange plate is securely bolted to the steering knuckle and carries the brake shoes and wheel cylinders. The steering knuckle arms
are also bolted to the steering knuckle and are con­nected with each other by the tie rod. The tie rod is the adjustable type attached to the knuckle arms and controls the amount of forgather or toe-in of the front wheels.
The steering third arm is forged integral with the left knuckle arm and is connected to the pitman arm by the steering connecting rod.
A caster shim or "I" beam spacer is inserted between the front springs and the front axle. The installation of this shim controls the amount the top of the axle inclines or tilts backward. This backward tilt of the axle gives the front wheels their caster.
The front wheel spindles, forged integral with the steering knuckles, are tilted downward at their outer ends, causing the front wheels to be farther apart at the top than they are at the bottom. This slight angular position of the front wheels is called camber.





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