Section 12 - Electrical System

Permanent magnets are made of hard steel and hold their magnetism almost indefinitely. However, their use is somewhat limited because one cannot change their strength at will and, this being the case, it is impossible to control them. On the auto­mobile permanent magnets are used in the speed­ometer and ammeter, as both of these instruments are measuring devices.
lated wire, as shown in Fig. 3. When this device is connected with a source of electrical energy, the core becomes magnetized and possesses all of the properties found in both natural and permanent magnets. To explain the reason for this iron core becoming magnetized it will be necessary to show the magnetic properties of the electrical circuit.
Every current-carrying conductor has a mag­netic field surrounding it. The magnetic field always travels in a clockwise direction around the con­ductor, looking in the direction in which the cur­rent flows. In Fig. 4, the arrow indicates the direc­tion of current flow through the wire or conductor, and looking along the wire from the end at which the current enters, the magnetic field is found to be traveling in a clockwise direction around it.
Fig. 5-Polarity of Electro Magnet
In order to determine the polarity of the electro magnet shown in Fig. 5, the following rules are used:
1.   Direct current flows through its circuit from positive to negative.
2.   The magnetic field about a current-carrying conductor always travels in a clockwise direc­tion about the conductor, looking in the direc­tion in which the current is flowing.
3.   Lines of force always follow a conductor of magnetism where they possibly can.
4.   Lines of force always flow from the south to the north inside the magnet and from north to south outside of the magnet.
By referring to Fig. 5, it will be noted that the current flowing from the positive of the battery passes around the core of the magnet and back to the negative of the battery. The magnetic field sur­rounding the wire is traveling clockwise around the wire, and in so doing engages the core while it is traveling upward and follows the iron core. The lines of force emerging from the top of the mag­net form a north pole and where they re-enter the core form the south pole.
Fig. 3-Electro Magnet
Electro magnets are made up of an iron core over which is wound a number of turns of insu-
Fig. 4-Direction of Lines of Force about Conductor





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